How to Write an Essay


Believe it or not, ‘how to write an essay’ is one of the top search terms on the Internet. I guess it’s because there’s a lot of panic stricken students out there that need this information in a hurry!

So here goes:
First of all, you should rest assured that compared to any other kind of writing, school essays are a breeze. You don’t need to be particularly bright or skillfull to pull them off. You just need to be able to read the question – and most of the work is already done.
You can get away with around 500 words too – which is pretty short. You can write up to around 2000 words if you want to look like some kind of a swot. But padding out an essay with extra words really doesn’t cut it – or impress the teacher – so my advice is to keep it short.
A good essay is broken down into 5 parts:
1. Intro
2. Terms of reference
3. Discussion
4. Analysis
5. Conclusion
Basically five paragraphs of around 100 words each, which equates to about 2 or 3 sentences in each paragraph, tops.
Now let’s look at how you fill that word count.
1. In the Intro you basically need to restate the question – to show you understand it and then make some sort of reference to the fact that you’re going to answer it in the essay.
So, say you have a question about what makes Peru an important country, you would say something like: Peru is a fascinating country and this is an interesting question because Peru is important, as I shall outline below…etc
2. Next, within the terms of reference, you need to define the context in which the question will be answered. Here’s where you tell the teacher what you already know – even if you feel like you’re stating the obvious.
In the above example you might explain that Peru is a place in South America, that a country is a self contained economy and that, compared to the whole wide world, it’s small potatoes…etc
3. In the third paragraph you need to deal with the question. It’s best to have at least two facts up your sleeve to drop into the essay at this point.
But don’t panic.
Look again at the question. Why are you being asked it? What’s the most obvious answer? In the case of Peru – you might guess it’s important because of its culture (a good answer to any question by the way), therefore tourism is going to be a factor – and maybe its because the people invented chocolate, sacrificial pyramids and cocaine – all valid things to bring into the essay.
4. In the fourth paragraph you need only discuss the relevance of the things you mentioned in the third paragraph.
For instance you might mention how chocolate is popular because it’s tasty, how cocaine is a bad thing because it kills people, how pulling out people’s hearts on sacrificial altars probably seemed like a good idea at the time etc etc.
Easy, but even easier is the:
5. Conclusion. Here you restate the question and tell the teacher you’ve answered it and proved your answer by the repeating the statements you’ve already made.
You might say, in conclusion, Peru is an important country because of its chocolate and cocaine production and because tourists like to visit the pyramids and spend their money there.
Voila – an essay likely to receive a gold star.
Here’s a tip. Teachers know this essay structure like the back their hand. Therefore it’s unlikely they’ll do anything but skim your essay looking for the two or three points you’re making. So there’s really no point to filling your essay with lots of interesting and insightful facts – it will only confuse them and cause them to work harder, which they don’t like doing.
Keep your essay short and sweet and if in doubt, waffle. Teachers, at the end of the day, prefer to see that you’ve tried, no matter what your answer.
I hope this helps.
Keep Writing!

Rob Parnell

Source

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Parents who suck on their infants´ pacifiers may protect their children against developing allergy

Swedish researchers at the Sahlgrenska Academy in Gothenburg report that a simple habit may give significant protection against allergy development, namely, the parental sucking on the baby’s pacifier.
Allergies are very common in industrialized countries. It has been suggested that exposure to harmless bacteria during infancy may be protective against the development of allergy. However, it has been difficult to pinpoint which bacteria a baby should be exposed to, and at what time and by which route this exposure should ideally occur.
Significant protection

Swedish researchers at the Sahlgrenska Academy in Gothenburg now report that a simple habit may give significant protection against allergy development, namely, the parental sucking on the baby’s pacifier.
In a group of 184 children, who were followed from birth, the researchers registered how many infants used a pacifier in the first 6 months of life and how the parents cleaned the pacifier. Most parents rinsed the pacifier in tap water before giving it to the baby, e.g., after it had fallen on the floor. However, some parents also boiled the pacifier to clean it. Yet other parents had the habit of putting the baby’s pacifier into their mouth and cleaning it by sucking, before returning it to the baby.
Less likely to suffer from eczema

It was found that children whose parents habitually sucked the pacifier were three times less likely to suffer from eczema at 1.5 years of age, as compared with the children of parents who did not do this. When controlled for other factors that could affect the risk of developing allergy, such as allergy in the parents and delivery by Caesarean section, the beneficial effect of parental sucking on the pacifier remained.
Pacifier use per se had no effect on allergy development in the child. Boiling the pacifier also did not affect allergy development in a statistically proven fashion.
Infections not more common

No more upper respiratory infections were seen in the children whose parents sucked on their dummies, as compared with the other children, as evidenced by diaries kept by the parents in which they noted significant events, such as infections.
Saliva is a very rich source of bacteria and viruses, and the researchers believe that oral commensal microbes are transferred from parent to infant when they suck on the same pacifier. When the composition of the bacterial flora in the mouth was compared between infants whose parents sucked on their pacifiers and those whose parent did not, it was found to differ, supporting this hypothesis.
Microbial stimulation

According to “the hygiene hypothesis”, the development of allergy can be attributed in part to a paucity of microbial stimulation during early infancy.
“Early establishment of a complex oral microflora might promote healthy maturation of the immune system, thereby counteracting allergy development”, says professor Agnes Wold who led the study.
The study, which is published in the scientific journal Pediatrics, was performed by a team that consisted of paediatricians specialized in allergic diseases, as well as microbiologists and immunologists. The research team has previously conducted large-scale studies on the gut microbiota in relation to allergy development and showed in 2009 that a complex gut microbiota very early in life reduces the risk of allergy development.
Contact information:

Senior Consultant, Associate Professor Bill Hesselmar, The Queen Silvia Children’s Hospital, Gothenburg and Department of Pediatrics, the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.

bill.hesselmar@vgregion.com

Phone: +46-31-343 60 85

Cell phone: +46-733-22 00 47
Professor Agnes Wold, Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute of Biomedicine, the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden

agnes.wold@microbio.gu.se

Phone: +46-31-342 46 17

Cell phone: +46-734-02 87 50

Link to article
BY: KRISTER SVAHN 
+4631 786 38 69

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